Osteointegration and Resorption of Intravertebral and Extravertebral Calcium Phosphate Cement

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Study Design:

Eleven patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures who underwent kyphoplasty using calcium phosphate (CaP) cement were followed up for 1 week, 1, 2, and 3 years in a monocentric, nonrandomized, noncontrolled retrospective trial.


This study investigates long-term radiomorphologic features of intraosseous CaP cement implants and of extraosseous CaP cement leakages for up to 3 years after implantation by kyphoplasty.

Summary of Background Data:

Kyphoplasty is frequently used for the treatment of painful osteoporotic fractures. Of the materials available, CaP is frequently used as a filling material. Resorption of this material is frequently observed, although clinical outcome is comparable with other cements.


Kyphoplasty utilizing CaP cement was performed in 11 patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures. All patients received a pharmacological antiosteoporosis treatment consisting of calcium, vitamin D, and a standard dose of oral bisphosphonates. Radiomorphologic measurements, pain, and mobility were assessed.


Intraosseous and extraosseous CaP cement volumes decreased significantly over 3 years. However, vertebral stability as determined by a constant vertebral body height and the sagittal index was not impaired. Pain improved significantly 2 years after implantation and the mobility scores 1 year after kyphoplasty at least until the third year.


Intravertebral CaP cement implants are resorbed slowly over time without jeopardizing stability and clinical outcomes most likely because of a slowly progressing osseous replacement. Extraosseous CaP cement material because of leakages during the kyphoplasty procedure is almost completely resorbed as early as 2 years after the leakage occurred. Therefore, CaP cement is an important alternative to PMMA-based cement materials utilized for kyphoplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

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