Regional muscle tissue saturation is an indicator of global inadequate circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized porcine study using muscle, intestinal and brain tissue metabolomics

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Abstract

Background:

Muscle tissue saturation (StO2) measured with near-infrared spectroscopy has generally been considered a measurement of the tissue microcirculatory condition. However, we hypothesized that StO2 could be more regarded as a fast and reliable measure of global than of regional circulatory adequacy and tested this with muscle, intestinal and brain metabolomics at normal and two levels of low cardiopulmonary bypass blood flow rates in a porcine model.

Methods:

Twelve 80 kg pigs were connected to normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with a blood flow of 60 mL/kg/min for one hour, reduced randomly to 47.5 mL/kg/min (Group I) or 35 mL/kg/min (Group II) for one hour followed by one hour of 60 mL/kg/min in both groups. Regional StO2 was measured continuously above the musculus gracilis (non-cannulated leg). Metabolomics were obtained by brain tissue oxygen monitoring system (Licox) measurements of the brain and microdialysis perfusate from the muscle, intestinal mucosa and brain. A non-parametric statistical method was used.

Results:

The systemic parameters showed profound systemic ischaemia during low CPB blood flow. StO2 did not change markedly in Group I, but in Group II, StO2 decreased immediately when blood flow was reduced and, furthermore, was not restored despite blood flow being normalized. Changes in the metabolomics from the muscle, colon and brain followed the changes in StO2.

Conclusion:

We found, in this experimental cardiopulmonary bypass model, that StO2 reacted rapidly when the systemic circulation became inadequate and, furthermore, reliably indicate insufficient global tissue perfusion even when the systemic circulation was restored after a period of systemic hypoperfusion.

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