Origin and distribution ofSporothrix globosacausing sapronoses in Asia
The aim of the study was to evaluate the main sources and epidemiological patterns and speculate on the evolutionary origin of Sporothrix globosa in Asia.Methodology.
Case and case series literature on sporotrichosis in Asia from January 2007 onwards were reviewed using meta-analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of relevant S. globosa was carried out on the basis of concatenated sequences of ITS, TEF3 and CAL. A haplotype network of CAL sequences of 281 Sporothrix isolates was analysed to determine the population structure of S. globosa.Results.
Nearly all cases of sporotrichosis caused by S. globosa in Asia were human. In contrast to the remaining pathogenic Sporothrix species, feline transmission was exceptional; nearly all regional cat-associated cases were caused by Sporothrix schenckii. While the latter species was highly variable and showed recombination, S. globosa seemed to be a clonal offshoot, as was Sporothrix brasiliensis. The origin of the segregants was located in an area of high variability in S. schenckii with a relatively high frequency of Asian strains.Conclusion.
In Asia, S. globosa was the prevalent species. The low diversity of S. globosa suggested a recent divergence with a founder effect of low variability from the variable ancestral species, S. schenckii.