Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat: a 6-week randomized study

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Observational studies suggest inverse associations between wholegrain intake and body weight gain. Only few controlled intervention studies have supported this association and few compare effects of different grain varieties.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate how wholegrain wheat (WGW) and rye compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation.

DESIGN:

Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen excretion was assessed during the postprandial test meal challenge.

RESULTS:

Diet allocation affected body weight significantly (P = 0.013) and tended also to affect fat mass (P = 0.065). Both body weight and fat mass decreased more in the WGR group (-1.06 ± 1.60 and - 0.75 ± 1.29 kg, respectively) compared with the RW group (+0.15 ± 1.28 and - 0.04 ± 0.82 kg, respectively; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Further, the decrease in fat mass in the WGR group tended to exceed that in the WGW group (P = 0.07). Overall, no effect of diet on appetite sensation was observed; however, energy intake from study products was ˜ 200 kcal lower in the WGR group when compared with that in the RW group (P<0.05), although total energy intake did not differ between groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results support a role for WGR foods in body weight regulation, when provided ad libitum. The effect may be mediated by satiation reflected in a reduction in energy intake, mainly from the wholegrain products without compensation in other parts of the diets, despite no difference in appetite.

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