Oral microbiome in HIV-associated periodontitis
HIV-associated periodontal diseases (PD) could serve as a source of chronic inflammation. Here, we sought to characterize the oral microbial signatures of HIV+ and HIV– individuals at different levels of PD severity.
This cross-sectional study included both HIV+ and HIV– patients with varying degrees of PD. Two tooth, 2 cheek, and 1 saliva samples were obtained for microbiome analysis. Mothur/SILVADB were used to classify sequences. R/Bioconductor (Vegan, PhyloSeq, and DESeq2) was employed to assess overall microbiome structure differences and differential abundance of bacterial genera between groups. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to assess immune activation in CD4 and CD8 cell populations.
Around 250 cheek, tooth, and saliva samples from 50 participants (40 HIV+ and 10 HIV–) were included. Severity of PD was classified clinically as None/Mild (N), Moderate (M), and Severe (S) with 18 (36%), 16 (32%), and 16 (32%) participants in each category, respectively. Globally, ordination analysis demonstrated clustering by anatomic site (R2 = 0.25, P < 0.001). HIV status and PD severity showed a statistically significant impact on microbiome composition but only accounted for a combined 2% of variation. HIV+ samples were enriched in genera Abiotrophia, Neisseria, Kingella, and unclassified Neisseriaceae and depleted in Leptotrichia and Selenomonas. The Neisseria genus was consistently enriched in HIV+ participants regardless of sampling site and PD level. Immune markers were altered in HIV+ participants but did not show association with the oral microbiome.
HIV-associated changes in oral microbiome result in subtle microbial signatures along different stages of PD that are common in independent oral anatomic sites.