MULTIMODALITY OCULAR IMAGING IN A CASE REPORT OF HYPERVISCOSITY SYNDROME ASSOCIATED WITH LYMPHOPLASMACYTIC LEUKEMIA: THE IMAGES TELL THE STORY
To report the clinical course of a patient with ocular manifestations of hyperviscosity syndrome associated with Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and for the first time, video imaging of mobile emboli in the conjunctival and retinal vasculature.Methods and Patient:
A 60-year-old woman with newly diagnosed Waldenström macroglobulinemia, with no visual complaints was evaluated by the Ophthalmology service for a baseline ocular examination.Results:
At presentation, ocular examination revealed a visual acuity of 20/25 in each eye. Slit lamp examination showed mobile white emboli throughout the conjunctival vasculature of both eyes, which was captured on video. Dilated fundus examination revealed peripheral vascular occlusion along with extensive collateral formation in both eyes and as dilation of vessels at the posterior pole of the left eye. Mobile arterial and venous emboli were also observed in the retinal vasculature, which were captured with slit-lamp color and infrared reflectance video imaging.Conclusion:
Hyperviscosity syndrome is a rare circulation sequelae that occurs when blood is thickened secondary to an increase in immunoglobulins or a hyperproliferation of blood components as in bone marrow dyscrasias. The increase in viscosity is plainly observable in the retinal circulation, and this syndrome is often diagnosed based on visual symptoms and fundus examination. We report a patient with Waldenström macroglobulinemia who presented with multiple ocular manifestations of hyperviscosity syndrome despite the absence of visual complaints. Ophthalmologists should be aware that regardless of the lack of any subjective visual changes, ocular findings of hyperviscosity syndrome should prompt quick referral to a Hematology Oncologist for evaluation of other end-organ damage. We also for the first time, provide video documentation of mobile emboli in the conjunctival and retinal vasculature.