Synthetic nanovaccines for immunotherapy
Although vaccination is historically one of the most successful strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases, development of vaccines for cancer and many chronic infections, such as HIV, malaria, and tuberculosis, has remained a challenge. Strong and long-lasting antigen-specific T cell responses are critical for therapy of these diseases. A major challenge in achieving a robust CD8 + T cell response is the requirement of spatio-temporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation. Here, we discuss the development of nanoparticle vaccine (nanovaccine) that modulates the innate immune system and enhances adaptive immunity with reduced toxicity. We address how nanovaccines can integrate multiple functions, such as lymph node targeting, antigen presentation, and stimulation of innate immunity, to achieve a robust T cell response for immunotherapy.