Nanoincorporation of bioactive compounds from red grape pomaces:In vitroandex vivoevaluation of antioxidant activity
In this study, the active components of grape pomaces were first extracted by maceration in ethanol and propylene glycol, then in extra virgin olive oil. The main components of the hydrophilic extractive solutions were flavonoids, while monounsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant constituents of the extractive oil, with high levels of oleic acid, which were identified by HPLC/DAD and GC/MS, respectively. The hydrophilic extractive solutions and the lipophilic extractive oil were used to prepare phospholipid vesicles, avoiding the energetically and economically expensive steps required to obtain solid matrixes or pure compounds. The obtained grape bioactive enriched penetration enhancer containing vesicles (PEVs) were multilamellar, around 200 nm in size, and more viscous than the corresponding solutions. The antioxidant activity, evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH assays, was potentiated when the extractive solutions were loaded in PEVs. Further, the grape enriched PEVs were able to ensure an optimal protection against oxidative stress in an ex vivo human erythrocytes-based model.