Surrogate end points save lives

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Patient-centric markers are important, and when they can be conveniently measured they should dominate research questions. However, when the research question pertains to serious or potentially fatal illnesses and it will take years or even decades to answer with patient-centric outcomes, then a pragmatic approach based on common sense and surrogate markers should be adopted. This commentary discusses the important role that surrogate markers can play in medical research.

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