Enhancement of the antidermatophytic activity of silver nanoparticles by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and monoclonal antibody conjugation
The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), free or conjugated with monoclonal antibody and mediated by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser on five dermatophytes. The laser was applied for 45 s at 532 nm and 0.8 J/cm2. The application of AgNPs combined with laser caused an increase in fungal susceptibility compared to application of AgNPs alone. The MIC50 and MIC100 recorded 3 and 9 μg/ml in the case of E. floccosum (the most susceptible species), 10 and 19 μg/ml for T. rubrum (the most tolerant species), respectively. A decrease in keratinase activity reaching 76.1, 67.1, and 62.4% was attained in the case of M. gypseum, T. rubrum, and T. mentagrophyte, respectively, on application of 10 μg/ml AgNPs combined with Nd:YAG laser. Under the same conditions of application, a steady increase in leaked materials coupled with reduction in ergosterol synthesis was reached. The structural alterations occurred to the fungus were more observed on the application of AgNPs in combination with laser where the conidia and hyphae lost their cellular integrity, become flaccid, permanently destructed, and completely killed. The monoclonal antibody conjugated AgNPs did not result in significant variation in in vitro experiments compared with that produced by nonconjugated nanoparticles. However, the conjugates achieved significantly more curing of M. canis-inoculated guinea pigs compared with nonconjugated nanoparticles.