Effects of feeding Original XPC™ to broilers with a live coccidiosis vaccine under industrial conditions: Part 2. Cecal microbiota analysis
Biological supplements in poultry feed are of continued interest due to the improvements in growth performance, protection from pathogen invasion, and benefits in overall host health. The fermentation metabolites of Diamond V Original XPC™ (XPC) have previously been shown to improve commercial performance and reduce Salmonella in poultry. The current study sought to characterize the cecal microbiota using culture-independent analysis based on 16S rRNA gene in Coccivac-D sprayed broilers supplemented with XPC and/or Salinomycin (SAL). Ross 708 male broilers (n = 640) were assigned to one of 4 treatments: Cocci-vaccine (T1), Cocci-vaccine + XPC (T2), Cocci-vaccine + SAL (in the grower diet only) (T3), and Cocci-vaccine + SAL (in the grower diet only) + XPC (T4). Analysis with a PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated a shift in the microbial populations present at the various sampling ages — 16, 28, and 42 days. Phylogenetic analysis indicated further consistency in microbial communities directly related to bird age. Identification of microbial communities present and the assessment of their respective quantities using an Illumina MiSeq indicated treatment with XPC had no significant impact on microbial diversity (Chao1 index, observed operational taxonomic unit (OTU) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) whole tree). Sampling age revealed significantly greater diversity at 16 and 28 d (P < 0.05) as compared to the 42 d for the Shannon diversity index, while showing significantly decreased richness and diversity in the 42 d sampling age (Chao1 and observed OTU; P < 0.05). The results of the current study indicate that the chicken intestinal microbiota are impacted more by temporal changes rather than by the feed additive studied.