The effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on clinical and metabolic status in patients with Parkinson's disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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Abstract

The current research was performed to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on clinical signs and metabolic status in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 60 patients with PD. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either 1000 mg omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks. Unified Parkinson's disease rating stage (UPDRS) were recorded at baseline and the after 3-month intervention. After 12 weeks' intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation led to a significant improve in UPDRS (−3.3 ± 10.0 vs. +4.4 ± 14.9, P = 0.02). Furthermore, co-supplementation decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (−0.3 ± 0.6 vs. +0.3 ± 0.3 μg/mL, P < 0.001), and increased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+65.2 ± 68.7 vs. +16 ± 52.4 μmol/L, P = 0.003) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations (+41.4 ± 80.6 vs. −19.6 ± 55.9 μmol/L, P = 0.001) compared with the placebo. Additionally, co-supplementation meaningfully decreased insulin (−2.1 ± 4.9 vs. +1.4 ± 6.2 μIU/mL, P = 0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (−0.7 ± 1.8 vs.+0.3 ± 1.6, P = 0.02) and Beta cell function (−5.9 ± 13.9 vs. +5.7 ± 25.5, P = 0.03), and increased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.009 ± 0.02 vs. −0.006 ± 0.03, P = 0.03) compared with the placebo. Overall, our study demonstrated that omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation in people with PD had favorable effects on UPDRS, hs-CRP, TAC, GSH and markers of insulin metabolism.

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