Functional reorganization in obstructive sleep apnoea and insomnia: A systematic review of the resting-state fMRI
Functional neuroimaging techniques have accelerated progress in the study of sleep disorders. Considering the striking prevalence of these disorders in the general population, however, as well as their strong bidirectional relationship with major neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, their numbers are still surprisingly low. This review examines the contribution of resting state functional MRI to current understanding of two major sleep disorders, insomnia disorder and obstructive sleep apnoea. An attempt is made to learn from parallels of previous resting state functional neuroimaging findings in major depressive disorder. Moreover, shared connectivity biomarkers are suggested for each of the sleep disorders. Taken together, despite some inconsistencies, the synthesis of findings to date highlights the importance of the salience network in hyperarousal and affective symptoms in insomnia. Conversely, dysfunctional connectivity of the posterior default mode network appears to underlie cognitive and depressive symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea.