Biodegradable gelatin/beta-tricalcium phosphate sponges incorporating recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-2 for treatment of recession-type defects: A split-mouth study in dogs

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Abstract

Background and Objective:

Tissue engineering by using recombinant human (rh) growth factor technology may offer a promising therapeutic approach for treatment of gingival recession. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) has shown the ability to promote periodontal regeneration. Gelatin/beta-tricalcium phosphate (gelatin/β-TCP) sponges have been developed to control the release of growth factors. The present study evaluated the periodontal regenerative efficacy of rhFGF-2 by comparing gelatin/β-TCP sponges incorporated with rhFGF-2 to the scaffolds alone in artificially created recession-type defects in dogs.

Materials and methods:

Critically sized buccal gingival recession defects were surgically created on maxillary canine teeth of five dogs. In each animal, defects were randomized to receive either a gelatin/β-TCP sponge soaked with rhFGF-2 (gelatin/β-TCP/rhFGF-2) or phosphate-buffered saline (gelatin/β-TCP). Eight weeks after surgery, biopsy specimens were obtained and subjected to microcomputed tomography and histological analyses.

Results:

Complete root coverage was achieved in both groups. Microcomputed tomography revealed significantly greater new bone volume in the gelatin/β-TCP/rhFGF-2 group. Histologically, both groups achieved periodontal regeneration; however, gelatin/β-TCP/rhFGF-2 sites exhibited more tissue regeneration, characterized by significantly larger amounts of new cementum and new bone. Gelatin/β-TCP sites featured increased long junctional epithelium and connective tissue attachment. In the gelatin/β-TCP/rhFGF-2 sites, new bone exhibited many haversian canals and circumferential lamellae as well as remarkably thick periosteum with blood vascularization and hypercellularity.

Conclusion:

Within the limitations of this study, rhFGF-2 in gelatin/β-TCP sponges exhibits an increased potential to support periodontal wound healing/regeneration in canine recession-type defects.

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