Growth Arrest and DNA-damage–inducible Protein 45β-mediated DNA Demethylation of Voltage-dependent T-type Calcium Channel 3.2 Subunit Enhances Neuropathic Allodynia after Nerve Injury in Rats

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid

Abstract

Background:

Growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β reactivates methylation-silenced neural plasticity-associated genes through DNA demethylation. However, growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β–dependent demethylation contributes to neuropathic allodynia-associated spinal plasticity remains unclear.

Methods:

Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats (654 out of 659) received a spinal nerve ligation or a sham operation with or without intrathecal application of one of the following: growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β messenger RNA–targeted small interfering RNA, lentiviral vector expressing growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β, Ro 25–6981 (an NR2B-bearing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist), or KN-93 (a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II antagonist) were used for behavioral measurements, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, dot blots, detection of unmodified cytosine enrichment at cytosine-phosphate-guanine site, chromatin immunoprecipitation quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, and slice recordings.

Results:

Nerve ligation-enhanced growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β expression (n = 6) in ipsilateral dorsal horn neurons accompanied with behavioral allodynia (n = 7). Focal knockdown of growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β expression attenuated ligation-induced allodynia (n = 7) by reducing the binding of growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β to the voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit promoter (n = 6) that decreased expression of and current mediated by the voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit (both n = 6). In addition, NR2B-bearing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II act in an upstream cascade to increase growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β expression, hence enhancing demethylation at the voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit promoter and up-regulating voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit expression. Intrathecal administration of Ro 25–6981, KN-93, or a growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β–targeting small interfering RNA (n = 6) reversed the ligation-induced enrichment of unmodified cytosine at the voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit promoter by increasing the associated 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine levels.

Conclusions:

By converting 5-formylcytosine or 5-carboxylcytosine to unmodified cytosine, the NR2B-bearing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, or growth arrest and DNA-damage–inducible protein 45β pathway facilitates voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel 3.2 subunit gene demethylation to mediate neuropathic allodynia.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles