Ultrasonic method for monitoring the clotting process during whole blood coagulation
The purpose of this work was to develop a multichannel ultrasonic measurement method for monitoring a spatially non-uniform blood clotting process. This novel method is based on simultaneous multi-channel measurements of ultrasound propagation velocities in different horizontal cross-sections of clotting blood.
The most common method used for determining blood-clotting time is the capillary tube method. For this purpose ultrasonic methods based on measurements of the velocities of ultrasound waves in clotting blood are also used. Measurement results essentially depend on the propagation path of the ultrasonic wave in a blood sample. The ultrasound velocity changes as fresh blood transforms into clot plus serum. The objective of this work was to develop a measurement method that allows one to measure ultrasound velocity and its evolution in time and space in an evolving clot while avoiding the influence of serum.
To achieve this objective, a novel method has been proposed that is based on ultrasound propagation velocity measurements in different horizontal cross-sections of clotting blood using a pulse-echo mode. Such a technique enables researchers to monitor the clotting process and a clot's spatial structure, which are different in different layers due to the influence of gravity. The four-channel measurement chamber utilizing this method has been designed and manufactured. For the generation and reception of ultrasonic waves of high frequency, wide band (3–20 MHz at −6 dB) ultrasonic transducers were developed. To verify that the multi-channel measurement system was operational, a special procedure based on monitoring of a polymerisation process in the acrylamide solution was proposed.
Performance of the developed method was investigated by measuring clotting blood (sample volumes of less than 0.6 ml) at the frequency of 12 MHz. The results revealed that a clot structure indeed varies within a blood sample due to the influence of gravity; clotting times are different in different horizontal layers of the clot and range from 9 to 15 min, defined by the standard capillary method. Clotting times are determined precisely from abrupt increases in ultrasound velocity. Uncertainty of the ultrasound velocity measurements was less than ±0.05 m/s. The experiments were performed at 36.90 ± 0.01 °C.
The proposed method may be exploited for monitoring polymerisation reactions in the chemistry field, as well.