True aneurysm of the tibial arteries is a rare clinical condition. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with a gradual onset of right calf swelling and pain. Imaging revealed large aneurysms arising from the proximal peroneal arteries bilaterally, measuring 7.4cm and 4cm on the right and left respectively. A detailed medical history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations did not identify evidence of an underlying cause. A surgical reconstruction with an interposition vein graft was successfully performed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary aneurysm of the peroneal artery in the English literature. We undertook a systematic literature review to identify all reported cases of primary aneurysms of the tibial arteries. The clinical presentation, modes of investigation and interventional treatments are discussed.