Transient HIV-specific T cells increase and inflammation in an HIV-infected patient treated with nivolumab

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Excerpt

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can reverse T-cell anergy and boost immune responses against tumours. Nivolumab, an ICI directed against programmed death-1 (PD-1), has become the new standard of care for second-line treatment of advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [1–3]. It is thought to be an even clever therapeutic option in HIV-infected patients [4], as the overexpression of PD-1 on exhausted HIV-specific T cells allows ICIs to reactivate PD-1+ T cells and to improve HIV-specific immune responses [5–7].

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