Angiographic Dissection Patterns and Patency Outcomes After Balloon Angioplasty for Superficial Femoral Artery Disease
Purpose: To investigate the angiographic dissection patterns after balloon angioplasty for superficial femoral artery (SFA) lesions, the clinical outcome associated with each dissection pattern, and the predictive factors for severe dissection. Methods: A retrospective, multicenter analysis examined 621 patients (mean age 72.8±9.5 years; 414 men) with 748 symptomatic de novo SFA lesions treated with endovascular therapy. Vessel dissection after the initial balloon angioplasty procedure was graded into 7 types according to a modified version of the coronary artery classification types A to F. Severe vessel dissection patterns were defined as type C or higher. Nitinol stent implantation was performed in 555 (74.2%) lesions for residual stenosis >30% or flow-limiting dissection; 193 lesions (25.8%) were treated with balloon angioplasty only. To determine the clinical outcomes associated with each dissection pattern and identify predictive factors for severe dissection, 2-year follow-up data for the 193 lesions treated with balloon angioplasty only were analyzed for primary patency and clinically driven target lesion revascularization (TLR). Results: No dissection was found in 16% (120/748) of lesions, and types A and B dissections were seen in 19% (142/748) and 23% (172/748), respectively. Dissection grades above type C were observed in 42% of cases, most frequently type D (180/748, 24%) and less often type C (37/748, 5%), type E (67/748, 9%), and type F (30/748, 4%). The bailout stent implantation rate increased according to dissection severity. At up to 2 years, the severe dissection group (types C–F) showed a significantly lower patency rate (p<0.001) and higher clinically driven TLR (p<0.001) compared to the nonsevere group (no dissection and types A and B dissections). Severe dissection was a significant risk factor for restenosis, which rose progressively from types C to F. Multivariate analysis identified a small reference vessel diameter <5 mm (p=0.001), lesion length >15 cm (p=0.001), and chronic total occlusion (p<0.001) as independent predictors of severe dissection. In subgroup analysis, vessels with a small reference diameter and TASC II C and D lesions had a higher prevalence of severe dissection. Conclusion: Severe dissection was found in 42% of cases after PTA. A small vessel diameter and/or TASC II C/D lesions were related to a high incidence of dissection. Severe dissection during procedures employing balloon angioplasty only could affect long-term patency.