Changes in US Lifetime Heroin Use and Heroin Use Disorder: Prevalence From the 2001-2002 to 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

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Abstract

Importance

Heroin use is an urgent concern in the United States. Little is know about the course of heroin use, heroin use disorder, and associated factors.

Objective

To examine changes in the lifetime prevalence, patterns, and associated demographics of heroin use and use disorder from 2001-2002 to 2012-2013 in 2 nationally representative samples of the US adult general population.

Design, Setting, and Participants

This survey study included data from 43 093 respondents of the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and 36 309 respondents of the 2012-2013 NESARC-III. Data were analyzed from February 2 to September 15, 2016.

Main Outcomes and Measures

Lifetime heroin use and DSM-IV heroin use disorder.

Results

Among the 79 402 respondents (43.3% men; 56.7% women; mean [SD] age, 46.1 [17.9] years), prevalence of heroin use and heroin use disorder significantly increased from 2001-2002 to 2012-2013 (use: 0.33% [SE, 0.03%] vs 1.6% [SE, 0.08%]; disorder: 0.21% [SE, 0.03%] vs 0.69% [SE, 0.06%]; P < .001). The increase in the prevalence of heroin use was significantly pronounced among white (0.34% [SE, 0.04%] in 2001-2002 vs 1.90% [SE, 0.12%] in 2012-2013) compared with nonwhite (0.32% [SE, 0.05%] in 2001-2002 vs 1.05% [SE, 0.10%] in 2012-2013; P < .001) individuals. The increase in the prevalence of heroin use disorder was more pronounced among white individuals (0.19% [SE, 0.03%] in 2001-2002 vs 0.82% [SE, 0.08%] in 2012-2013; P < .001) and those aged 18 to 29 (0.21% [SE, 0.06%] in 2001-2002 vs 1.0% [0.17%] in 2012-2013; P = .01) and 30 to 44 (0.20% [SE, 0.04%] in 2001-2002 vs 0.77% [0.10%] in 2012-2013; P = .03) years than among nonwhite individuals (0.25% [SE, 0.04%] in 2001-2002 vs 0.43% [0.07%] in 2012-2013) and older adults (0.22% [SE, 0.04%] in 2001-2002 vs 0.51% [SE, 0.07%] in 2012-2013). Among users, significant differences were found across time in the proportion of respondents meeting DSM-IV heroin use disorder criteria (63.35% [SE, 4.79%] in 2001-2001 vs 42.69% [SE, 2.87%] in 2012-2013; P < .001). DSM-IV heroin abuse was significantly more prevalent among users in 2001-2002 (37.02% [SE, 4.67%]) than in 2012-2013 (19.19% [SE, 2.34%]; P = .001). DSM-IV heroin dependence among users was similar in 2001-2002 (28.22% [SE, 3.95%]) and in 2012-2013 (25.02% [SE, 2.20%]; P = .48). The proportion of those reporting initiation of nonmedical use of prescription opioids before initiating heroin use increased across time among white individuals (35.83% [SE, 6.03%] in 2001-2002 to 52.83% [SE, 2.88%] in 2012-2013; P = .01).

Conclusions and Relevance

The prevalence of heroin use and heroin use disorder increased significantly, with greater increases among white individuals. The nonmedical use of prescription opioids preceding heroin use increased among white individuals, supporting a link between the prescription opioid epidemic and heroin use in this population. Findings highlight the need for educational campaigns regarding harms related to heroin use and the need to expand access to treatment in populations at increased risk for heroin use and heroin use disorder.

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