Histomorphometric Comparison of Bone Regeneration in Critical-Sized Bone Defects Using Demineralized Bone Matrix, Platelet-Rich Fibrin, and Hyaluronic Acid as Bone Substitutes

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Abstract

Aim:

To compare bone regeneration in the critical-sized bone defects grafted with demineralized bone matrix, platelet-rich fibrin, and hyaluronic acid in rats.

Materials and Methods:

Forty Wistar Albino rats allocated into 4 experimental groups: platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) group, noncross-linked hyaluronic acid gel (HA) group, demineralized bone matrix in putty form (DBM) group, and control group. A critical-sized defect of 8 mm was formed involving the sagittal suture for each rat under anesthetic induction. All animals were sacrificed at 21st day after surgery and histomorphometric parameters of total horizontal length (THL) and total vertical length (TVL) of newly produced bone and longest bone trabecula (LBT) were measured in the histologic slides. The difference between experimental groups for these parameters was analyzed.

Results:

There was statistically significant difference in THL and LBT but not in TVL. Total horizontal length was significantly increased in DBM group compared with control and HA groups (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant increase in THL in PRF group compared with control group (P < 0.05). Longest bone trabecula significantly increased in DBM group compared with HA group (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant increase in HA group compared with control group (P < 0.05) and LBT significantly increased in PRF group compared with HA group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion:

The sole usage of HA does not effectively increase bone regeneration when compared with DBM and PRF. The DBM and PRF do not have superiority to each other in the bone regeneration while they are superior to HA.

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