“In situ” endografting in the treatment of arterial and graft infections
Endografts (eg, aortic aneurysm device or covered stent) are increasingly being used to temporize or treat arterial and graft infections in inaccessible areas, in patients with compromised anatomy, or in the presence of active bleeding or rupture. This summary examines the evidence for “in situ” endografting in the treatment these conditions.Methods:
A two-level search strategy of the literature (MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and The Cochrane Library) was performed for relevant articles listed between January 2000 and December 2015. The review was confined to patients with primary and secondary bacterial or viral arterial infections, with or without fistulization and infection of bypass grafts and arteriovenous accesses. For the purposes of this summary, endografts can be considered to be an aortic aneurysm device or a covered stent.Results:
There are no societal guidelines. Endografts have been successfully applied to mycotic arterial aneurysms, aortoenteric, aortobronchial, and arterioureteric fistulae, and to anastomotic bleeds secondary to infection. Multiple reports indicate success at the control of hemorrhage in all locations. Short-term outcomes are good, but fatal infection-related complications, especially if antibiotic therapy is halted, are well reported and necessitate a more definitive plan for the long term.Conclusions:
Stent grafts remain an important and viable option for the treatment of mycotic aneurysms, aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistulae, and infected pseudoaneurysms in anatomically or technically inaccessible locations. In patients with a short life span (<6 months), no further intervention is generally required. In patients with a predicted life span >6 months, careful consideration should be given to a more definitive procedure. Life-long appropriate antibiotic therapy is strongly recommended for any patient receiving an endograft in an infected field.