Immune cells play a critical role in atherosclerosis. Costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules of the tumor necrosis factor receptor and CD28 immunoglobulin superfamilies not only shape T-cell and B-cell responses but also have a major effect on antigen-presenting cells and nonimmune cells.Approach and Results—
Pharmacological inhibition or activation of costimulatory and coinhibitory molecules and genetic deletion demonstrated their involvement in atherosclerosis. This review highlights recent advances in understanding how costimulatory and coinhibitory pathways shape the immune response in atherosclerosis.Conclusions—
Insights gained from costimulatory and coinhibitory molecule function in atherosclerosis may inform future therapeutic approaches.