Spinopelvic Parameters in Asymptomatic Subjects Without Spine Disease and Deformity: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis

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Study Design:

A systematic review with meta-analysis.


To combine published data, focusing on the development of optimal spinopelvic parameters in adult asymptomatic subjects without spine deformity while taking into consideration the impact of potential confounders.

Summary of Background Data:

A well-grounded approach to define the optimal spinopelvic parameters is necessary for planning surgical correction of spine deformity.


Selection criteria: (1) randomized and nonrandomized prospective, cross-sectional, and retrospective studies; (2) participants: asymptomatic subjects without spine deformity aged above 18 years; (3) studied parameters: lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence, sacral slope, and pelvic tilt; (4) potential confounders: method of measurement, sex, age, ethnicity, weight, height, and body mass index. Search method: Ovid MEDLINE (1946-current) and EMBASE (1980-current), all years through October 2015 were included. Data were collected: number of enrolled subjects, means of the studied characteristics, SD, SE of the means, 95% confidence intervals. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the pooled means and range of optimal values (pooled mean±pooled SD) taking into consideration the impact of confounders. The GRADE approach was applied to evaluate the level of evidence.


Seventeen of 1018 studies were included (2926 subjects from 9 countries). The pooled means and the optimal ranges were: LL (L1–S1), 54.6 (42–67) degrees; LL (L1–L5), 37.0 (22–53) degrees; pelvic incidence, 50.6 (39–62) degrees; sacral slope, 37.7 (28–48) degrees; pelvic tilt, 12.6 (3–22) degrees. The pooled results were statistically significant (P<0.001), but heterogeneous. Impact of the following confounders was revealed: method of measurement, ethnicity, age, and body mass index. A methodology was created to define an individualized optimal value and range of each studied parameter taking into consideration the influence of confounders.


The pooled results and developed methodology can be used as diagnostic criteria for evaluation of the spinopelvic parameters, planning of surgical interventions and evaluation of the treatment effect.

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