The solubility of drug molecules is closely related to its bioactivity as it affects the dissolution rate and bioavailability, especially in the case of BCS IV drugs like camptothecin (CPT), a potential broad-spectrum anticancer agent. In this study, we construct a novel boric acid (BA)-coated CPT nanocomposite by means of a simple heat-treatment approach, which combines nanoscale size range and amorphous solid state together to improve the overall dissolution rate of CPT. This new CPT formulation showed a rod-like structure with nanoscale size and amorphous solid nature. These BA-coated CPT nanocomposites exhibited a dramatically improved dissolution rate, water dispersion property, and long-term chemical and physical stability. More importantly, the specific reactivity of BA groups to diols in the cell glycocalyx facilitated a rapid cross-membrane translocation of the drug nanocomposite, leading to efficient intracellular drug delivery. When tested on A549 cells and SKBR3 cells, this formulation demonstrated a much higher anticancer activity in comparison with free CPT, naked amorphous CPT nanoparticles, and control CPT nanocrystals. This formulation has great potential for clinical application; it is easy to scale up and be applied on other hydrophobic drugs.