Proposal for a Novel Severity Grading System for Pterygia Based on Corneal Topographic Data

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Abstract

Purpose:

To propose a grading system of pterygium severity based on corneal higher-order irregularity (HOI) and to evaluate postoperative changes in corneal irregularity of the graded pterygia.

Methods:

In 268 eyes of 226 patients undergoing excision surgery of primary nasal pterygium, Placido corneal topography images were taken before and until 6 months after surgery. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and pterygium size with respect to the corneal diameter were also measured. HOI components within 1.0-, 3.0-, and 5.0-mm diameters were obtained using Fourier harmonic analysis of corneal topography data. With threshold levels when the HOIs for 3 diameters steeply increased, 4 levels of grading from 0 (mild) to 3 (severe) were determined. Associations of the grades with the preoperative surface regularity index (SRI), irregular components (IRRs) obtained from the 3.0-mm diameter Fourier analysis, and BCVA were examined. Time-course changes in the indexes after surgery were evaluated for each grade.

Results:

There were 62, 65, 41, and 100 eyes in grades 0 to 3, respectively. Preoperatively, the SRI in grade 3 was significantly higher than in the other grades (P < 0.001), and the IRR and BCVA varied with the grade (P < 0.001). Between 1 and 6 months postoperatively, grade 3 pterygia showed significant changes in the SRI and IRR (P = 0.013 and 0.017, respectively), whereas there was no change after 3 months postoperatively in the SRI, IRR, and BCVA for all other grades.

Conclusions:

The proposed grading effectively classified the severity of pterygia and evaluated postoperative restoration of corneal irregularity. Using corneal topographic data allowed for objective evaluation of pterygium severity.

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