Oestrous signs affect timely mating and reproductive efficiency in swine breeding herds. To study the genetic difference of oestrous signs between Chinese and European pigs, 100 Landrace-Large White (LLW) cross gilts and 50 Chinese Mi gilts were assessed for oestrous signs and the concentrations of serum estradiol-17β and progesterone were determined. The genotype of 39 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 oestrogen metabolism and function-related genes was determined by Sequenom iPLEX platform. Compared with LLW gilts, Mi gilts had longer time of standing reflex (p < .001), higher scores of vulva reddening (p = .001) and greater serum estradiol-17β concentration (p < .01). Gilts with greater serum estradiol-17β concentrations also had greater (p < .05) scores for oestrous signs. Genetic polymorphisms of nine genes in oestrogen metabolism pathways had significant differences (p < .05) between LLW and Mi gilts. There were three and six haploblocks of SNPs in LLW and Mi, respectively. Compared with LLW, the distribution of haplotypes was more centralized in Mi pigs. Genetic polymorphisms of oestrogen metabolism-related genes have considerable differences between Chinese Mi and European LLW pigs. Because of the important roles of oestrogen during the oestrus, some genes of oestrogen metabolism pathway could be considered as candidate genes for oestrous signs.