With the increasing global epidemic of obesity, the clinical importance of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) has grown. Even though the pancreas might be more susceptible to ectopic fat deposition compared with the liver, NAFPD is rarely discussed because of the limitation of detection techniques. In the past, NAFPD was considered as an innocent condition or just part of clinical manifestations during the course of obesity. Recently, a growing body of research suggests that NAFPD might be associated with β-cell dysfunction, insulin resistance and inflammation, which possibly lead to the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The present review summarized the current literature on the epidemiology, potential pathophysiology, diagnostic techniques, impact of NAFPD on β-cell function and insulin resistance, and the clinical relevance of the interplay between NAFPD and glucometabolic disorders.