Reduction ofSalmonellain ground chicken using a bacteriophage
This study's goal was to ascertain the effectiveness of a commercially available Salmonella bacteriophage during ground chicken production focusing on: water source, different Salmonella serovars, and time. Salmonella-free boneless, skinless chicken meat was inoculated with 4.0 Log CFU/cm2 of either a cocktail of 3 Salmonella isolates derived from ground chicken (GC) or a cocktail of 3 Salmonella strains not isolated from ground chicken (non-GC). Bacteriophages were spread onto the chicken using sterile tap or filtered water for 30 min or 8 h. Salmonella was recovered using standard plating method. Greater Salmonella reduction was observed when the bacteriophage was diluted in sterile tap water than in sterile filtered water: 0.39 Log CFU/cm2 and 0.23 Log CFU/cm2 reduction after 30 min, respectively (P < 0.05). The non-GC isolates showed reductions of 0.71 Log CFU/cm2 and 0.90 Log CFU/cm2 after 30 min and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05). The GC isolates were less sensitive to the bacteriophage: 0.39 Log CFU/cm2 and 0.67 Log CFU/cm2 reductions after 30 min and 8 h, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, bacteriophage reduction was dependent on water used to dilute the bacteriophage, Salmonella's susceptibility to the bacteriophage, and treatment time.