To provide a systematic classification of findings regarding the different stages of vitelliform macular dystrophy on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).Methods:
Ninety-four eyes of 47 patients were recruited in a prospective cross-sectional study. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including best-corrected visual acuity using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) charts, biomicroscopy, and SD-OCT. The findings assessed included vitelliform material, neurosensory detachment, status of external limiting membrane, ellipsoid zone and retinal pigment epithelium, choroidal excavation, foveal cavitation, choroidal neovascularization, vitreomacular traction, and macular hole. The primary outcome measure was the identification of SD-OCT findings in each vitelliform macular dystrophy stage. Secondary outcomes included the correlations between SD-OCT features and visual acuity changes.Results:
The outer retinal layers (external limiting membrane, ellipsoid zone, and retinal pigment epithelium) were found to be more commonly disrupted in Stages 2 to 4 (range: 86%–100%), whereas their absence was more typical of Stage 5 (71%–86%). Vitelliform material was found in 100% of Stages 2 and 3, 93% of Stage 4, and interestingly in 43% of Stage 5. Eyes characterized by vitelliform material showed a greater correlation with higher best-corrected visual acuity than eyes without it (0.35 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution vs. 0.80 ± 0.36 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, approximately 20/45 and 20/125 Snellen equivalent, respectively) (t = 3.726, P < 0.05). Moreover, its absence was associated with a best-corrected visual acuity of 0.5 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution or worse (approximately 20/63 Snellen equivalent; P < 0.05). Subretinal fluid was more common in Stages 3 and 4 (72.7% and 75%, respectively) than Stages 2 and 5 (P = 0.004). Eyes with subretinal fluid were significantly associated with a visual acuity of 0.2 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution or worse (approximately 20/32 Snellen equivalent; P = 0.04).Conclusion:
Spectral domain optical coherence tomography assessment primarily indicates an outer retinal layer disruption in Stages 2 to 4, along with the presence of vitelliform material extending into the more advanced clinical stages too. Eyes characterized by the persistence of vitelliform material show better best-corrected visual acuity. Future investigations based on a longitudinal follow-up are warranted to correlate SD-OCT modifications with functional responses to identify SD-OCT indicators for prognostic and therapeutic purposes.