Intraosseous Venous Malformations of the Zygoma: Report of 4 Cases and Literature Review

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As intraosseous venous malformations (IVMs) of the zygoma are very rare and clinical features are not typical, a correct preoperative diagnosis may be difficult to make. This study presents 4 cases of IVM of the zygoma and gives a review of their clinical manifestations, radiographic features, preoperative diagnosis, and differentials.


The report of 4 cases was performed with an average 6-year follow-up. Medical records including clinical, radiographic, and histopathological information were reviewed.


All the patients were mid-aged women with a complaint of an enlarging mass over the midface. They all failed to receive a definite preoperative diagnosis, and the diagnoses of IVM in all patients were made via pathological evidence. Although they received different surgical treatments, all the follow-up results (2~12 years) were satisfactory.


Intraosseous venous malformations of the zygoma are benign lesions caused by abnormal vessel morphogenesis. Patients usually present in their 40s with a tender or painless swelling of the zygoma. The key to the diagnosis is the typical sunburst pattern of radiating trabeculae with intact cortices on computed tomographic scans. Intraosseous venous malformations should be differentiated from other lesions, including intraosseous meningioma, fibrous dysplasia, osteochondroma, osteosarcoma, and ossifying fibroma.

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