Morning blood pressure monitoring in the management of hypertension
The aim of the current article is to review the current evidence on the role of morning blood pressure (BP) in the management of hypertension. Morning BP surge had been and will continue to be a hot topic of hypertension research. However, more evidence is needed to prove its clinical usefulness in the management of hypertension. Masked morning hypertension, as the other forms of masked hypertension, requires more research. The concept of morning BP monitoring could be clinically relevant in the therapeutic management of hypertension and in the prevention of cardiovascular complications by defining and treating morning hypertension. Antihypertensive medication is usually taken in the morning. The presence of uncontrolled morning BP during trough effect hours could be a hallmark of inadequate antihypertensive regimen, such as, for instance, the use of short-acting or intermediate-acting drugs, under dosing of drugs, or no or low use of combination therapy. To improve the management of hypertension in general and morning hypertension in particular, long-acting antihypertensive drugs should be used in appropriate often full dosages and in proper combinations. The clinical usefulness of antihypertensive drugs of specific mechanisms against morning BP or split or timed dosing of long-acting drugs in controlling morning BP remains under investigation. In conclusion, there is some evidence that morning BP is critical in the incidence of cardiovascular complications. However, proving its clinical usefulness in the management of hypertension requires further research.