The aim of this study was to assess the impact of different sports on hip joint anatomic parameters in athletes. This was a cross-sectional study of eight male trampolinists, eight male weightlifters, and eight male volunteers enrolled in July 2014. Hip joint anatomic parameters were measured from plain radiographs taken at the level of the lesser trochanter center. Data were compared between groups using the χ2-test or one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. There were no significant differences among groups in age, height, or weight. Compared with the controls, trampolinists showed higher pelvic width, femoral neck length, metaphyseal width (T0), width 20 mm above T0 (T+20), width 20 mm below T0 (T−20) and center edge (CE) angle, and lower head–trochanter ratio, joint space, neck-shaft angle, and articular cartilage angle (P<0.05). Compared with the controls, weightlifters showed lower pelvic femoral index, joint space, length of femoral neck, eccentricity, neck-shaft, and AC angle, and higher pelvic width, femoral head radius, and CE angle (P<0.05). Compared with trampolinists, weightlifters showed higher head–trochanter ratio and femoral head radius, and lower pelvic femoral index, femoral neck length, eccentricity, T0, T+20, T−20, neck-shaft angle, CE angle, and articular cartilage angle (P<0.05). Long-term high-intensity training causes adaptive changes in the hip joint structure that differ between trampolinists and weightlifters.