Laparoscopy Compared With Laparotomy for Debulking Ovarian Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To compare 3-year survival, length of hospitalization, perioperative mortality, risk of readmission, and residual disease associated with laparoscopic and laparotomic interval debulking surgery among women with epithelial ovarian cancer.

METHODS:

We used the National Cancer Database to identify a cohort of patients diagnosed with stage IIIC and IV epithelial ovarian cancer between 2010 and 2012 who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and interval debulking surgery. We compared 3-year overall survival, duration of postoperative hospitalization, 90-day postoperative mortality, and residual disease status between women who underwent interval debulking by laparoscopy and by laparotomy. We used the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression models in survival analyses. At a significance of .05, this study had 80% power to detect an 8% difference in 3-year survival. The main analysis was intention to treat.

RESULTS:

We identified 3,071 women meeting inclusion criteria, of whom 450 (15%) underwent surgery initiated laparoscopically. There was no difference in 3-year survival between patients undergoing laparoscopy [47.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 41.4–53.5] and laparotomy (52.6%; 95% CI 50.3–55.0; P=.12). Survival did not differ after adjustment for demographic characteristics, facility type, presence of comorbidities, and stage (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI 0.93–1.28; P=.26). Postoperative hospitalization was slightly shorter in the laparoscopy group (median 4 compared with 5 days, P<.001). Frequency of readmission (5.3% compared with 3.7%; P=.26), death within 90 days of surgery (2.8% compared with 2.9%, P=.93), and suboptimal debulking (20.6% compared with 22.6%, P=.29) did not differ between patients undergoing laparoscopy and laparotomy.

CONCLUSION:

Ovarian cancer patients selected for laparoscopic interval debulking surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy have 3-year survival rates similar to women who undergo interval debulking by laparotomy. Laparoscopy is associated with a modestly shorter postoperative hospitalization, whereas readmission rates and risk of perioperative death are similar for the surgeries.

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