Prospects of siRNA applications in regenerative medicine
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has established its reputation in the field of tissue engineering owing to its ability to silence the proteins that inhibit tissue regeneration. siRNA is capable of regulating cellular behavior during tissue regeneration processes. The concept of using siRNA technology in regenerative medicine derived from its ability to inhibit the expression of target genes involved in defective tissues and the possibility to induce the expression of tissue-inductive factors that improve the tissue regeneration process. To date, siRNA has been used as a suppressive biomolecule in different tissues, such as nervous tissue, bone, cartilage, heart, kidney, and liver. Moreover, various delivery systems have been applied in order to deliver siRNA to the target tissues. This review will provide an in-depth discussion on the development of siRNA and their delivery systems and mechanisms of action in different tissues.