Association Between Severity of Temporomandibular Disorders and the Frequency of Headache Attacks in Women With Migraine: A Cross-Sectional Study

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Abstract

Objective:

The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude of association of the severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) in women with episodic and chronic migraine.

Methods:

Thirty-one women with episodic migraine (mean age: 33 years), 21 with chronic migraine (mean age: 35 years) and 32 healthy controls (mean age: 31 years) were included. The Fonseca Anamnestic Index was applied to assess severity of TMDs. TMD severity was considered as follows: no TMD (0-19 points), mild TMD (20-49 points), moderate TMD (50-69 points), and severe TMD (70-100 points). To compare the proportion of TMD severity among groups, a χ2 test was performed. Prevalence ratio (PR) was calculated to determine the association of TMD severity and both migraine groups using the control group as the reference.

Results:

Women with chronic and episodic migraine were more likely to exhibit TMD signs and symptoms of any severity than healthy controls (χ2 = 30.26; P < .001). TMD prevalence was 54% for healthy controls, 78% for episodic migraine, and 100% for chronic migraine. Women with chronic migraine exhibited greater risk of more severe manifestations of TMD than healthy controls (PR: 3.31; P = .008). This association was not identified for episodic migraine (PR: 2.18; P = .101).

Conclusion:

The presence of TMD signs and symptoms was associated with migraine independently of the frequency; however, the magnitude of the association of more severe TMD was significantly greater in chronic, but not episodic, migraine.

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