Utility of the simplified Wells and revised Geneva scores to exclude pulmonary embolism in femur fracture patients

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Abstract

Objectives

The diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in trauma patients is challenging. This study evaluated the diagnostic value of simplified Wells and simplified revised Geneva scores to predict PE in femur fracture patients in emergency department (ED).

Methods

All consecutive adult patients with femur fractures and elevated D-dimer levels (> 0.5 μg/mL) who underwent CTPA within 72 h of injury from January 2010 to December 2014 were included. The simplified Wells and simplified revised Geneva scores were applied to evaluate the clinical probability of PE.

Results

Among 519 femur fracture patients, 446 patients were finally included, and 23 patients (5.2%) were diagnosed with acute PE. The median values of simplified Wells and simplified revised Geneva scores [0 (IQR: 0–1) vs. 0 (IQR: 0–0), P = 0.23; 3 (IQR: 2–4) vs. 3 (IQR: 2–3), P = 0.48] showed no differences between the PE (n = 23) and non-PE (n = 423) groups. Using the simplified Wells score, 98% of the patients were categorized into the “PE unlikely” group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the simplified revised Geneva score (≥ 3 points) for the diagnosis of PE were 74%, 35%, 6%, and 96%, respectively.

Conclusion

In femur fracture patients with elevated D-dimer levels, the simplified Wells and simplified revised Geneva scores have limited predictive value. However, the simplified revised Geneva score of < 3 points may be possibly used as a diagnostic tool.

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