A Functional Analysis of Two Transdiagnostic, Emotion-Focused Interventions on Nonsuicidal Self-Injury
Objective: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is prevalent and associated with clinically significant consequences. Developing time-efficient and cost-effective interventions for NSSI has proven difficult given that the critical components for NSSI treatment remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the specific effects of mindful emotion awareness training and cognitive reappraisal, 2 transdiagnostic treatment strategies that purportedly address the functional processes thought to maintain self-injurious behavior, on NSSI urges and acts. Method: Using a counterbalanced, combined series (multiple baseline and data-driven phase change) aggregated single-case experimental design, the unique and combined impact of these 2 4-week interventions was evaluated among 10 diagnostically heterogeneous self-injuring adults. Ecological momentary assessment was used to provide daily ratings of NSSI urges and acts during all study phases. Results: Eight of 10 participants demonstrated clinically meaningful reductions in NSSI; 6 participants responded to 1 intervention alone, whereas 2 participants responded after the addition of the alternative intervention. Group analyses indicated statistically significant overall effects of study phase on NSSI, with fewer NSSI urges and acts occurring after the interventions were introduced. The interventions were also associated with moderate to large reductions in self-reported levels of anxiety and depression, and large improvements in mindful emotion awareness and cognitive reappraisal skills. Conclusions: Findings suggest that brief mindful emotion awareness and cognitive reappraisal interventions can lead to reductions in NSSI urges and acts. Transdiagnostic, emotion-focused therapeutic strategies delivered in time-limited formats may serve as practical yet powerful treatment approaches, especially for lower-risk self-injuring individuals.