Effect ofClostridium difficilePrevalence in Hospitals and Nursing Homes on Risk of Infection
To assess the effect of facility Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevalence on risk of healthcare facility (HFC) acquired CDI.DESIGN:
Retrospective cohort study.SETTING:
Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) claims and skilled nursing facility (SNF) Minimum Data Set 3.0 assessments.PARTICIPANTS:
Medicare beneficiaries with 90 days or more of no contact with a HCF before a hospital admission without a CDI diagnosis. Participants were separated into two cohorts: discharged to the community and discharged to a SNF.MEASUREMENTS:
Risk of HCF-acquired CDI associated with CDI prevalence at the index facility measured according to 30-day rehospitalization with a discharge diagnosis of CDI or diagnosis in the SNF after admission. Hospital and SNF CDI prevalence were categorized into three groups: 0% and above and below the median value for facilities with greater than 0% prevalence.RESULTS:
Of 817,900 eligible individuals, there were 553,423 admissions in the first cohort (discharged to the community) and 315,109 in the second (discharged to a SNF). In the first cohort, the risk of HCF-acquired CDI was higher for individuals admitted to hospitals with CDI prevalence less than the median (relative risk (RR) = 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18–2.12) and greater than the median (RR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.91–3.45) than for those with no CDI. In the second cohort, the risk of HCF-acquired CDI was greater for individuals admitted to a hospital (RR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.49–2.39) and a SNF (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.31–1.67) with CDI prevalence greater than the median.CONCLUSION:
The risk of HCF-acquired CDI is greater for noninfected individuals admitted to hospitals and SNFs with a high prevalence of CDI.