Derivation and Validation of a Serum Biomarker Panel to Identify Infants With Acute Intracranial Hemorrhage
Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of death from physical abuse. Missing the diagnosis of abusive head trauma, particularly in its mild form, is common and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may have potential as quantitative point-of-care screening tools to alert physicians to the possibility of intracranial hemorrhage.Objective
To identify and validate a set of biomarkers that could be the basis of a multivariable model to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants using the Ziplex System.Design, Setting, and Participants
Binary logistic regression was used to develop a multivariable model incorporating 3 serum biomarkers (matrix metallopeptidase-9, neuron-specific enolase, and vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1) and 1 clinical variable (total hemoglobin). The model was then prospectively validated. Multiplex biomarker measurements were performed using Flow-Thru microarray technology on the Ziplex System, which has potential as a point-of-care system. The model was tested at 3 pediatric emergency departments in level I pediatric trauma centers (Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Primary Children’s Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah; and Lurie Children’s Hospital, Chicago, Illinois) among well-appearing infants who presented for care owing to symptoms that placed them at increased risk of abusive head trauma. The study took place from November 2006 to April 2014 at Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, June 2010 to August 2013 at Primary Children’s Hospital, and January 2011 to August 2013 at Lurie Children’s Hospital.Main Outcomes and Measures
A mathematical model that can predict acute intracranial hemorrhage in infants at increased risk of abusive head trauma.Results
The multivariable model, Biomarkers for Infant Brain Injury Score, was applied prospectively to 599 patients. The mean (SD) age was 4.7 (3.1) months. Fifty-two percent were boys, 78% were white, and 8% were Hispanic. At a cutoff of 0.182, the model was 89.3% sensitive (95% CI, 87.7-90.4) and 48.0% specific (95% CI, 47.3-48.9) for acute intracranial hemorrhage. Positive and negative predictive values were 21.3% and 95.6%, respectively. The model was neither sensitive nor specific for atraumatic brain abnormalities, isolated skull fractures, or chronic intracranial hemorrhage.Conclusion and Relevance
The Biomarkers for Infant Brain Injury Score, a multivariable model using 3 serum biomarker concentrations and serum hemoglobin, can identify infants with acute intracranial hemorrhage. Accurate and timely identification of intracranial hemorrhage in infants without a history of trauma in whom trauma may not be part of the differential diagnosis has the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality from abusive head trauma.