Comprehensive Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Breast With Fat/Water Separation and High Spatiotemporal Resolution Using Radial Sampling, Compressed Sensing, and Parallel Imaging

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of Dixon radial volumetric encoding (Dixon-RAVE) for comprehensive dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast using a combination of radial sampling, model-based fat/water separation, compressed sensing, and parallel imaging.

Materials and Methods

In this Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act–compliant prospective study, 24 consecutive patients underwent bilateral breast MRI, including both conventional fat-suppressed and non–fat-suppressed precontrast T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE). Afterward, 1 continuous Dixon-RAVE scan was performed with the proposed approach while the contrast agent was injected. This scan was immediately followed by the acquisition of 4 conventional fat-saturated VIBE scans. From the comprehensive Dixon-RAVE data set, different image contrasts were reconstructed that are comparable to the separate conventional VIBE scans.

Materials and Methods

Two radiologists independently rated image quality, conspicuity of fibroglandular tissue from fat (FG), and degree of fat suppression (FS) on a 5-point Likert-type scale for the following 3 comparisons: precontrast fat-suppressed (pre-FS), precontrast non–fat-suppressed (pre-NFS), and dynamic fat-suppressed (dyn-FS) images.

Results

When scores were averaged over readers, Dixon-RAVE achieved significantly higher (P < 0.001) degree of fat suppression compared with VIBE, for both pre-FS (4.25 vs 3.67) and dyn-FS (4.10 vs 3.46) images. Although Dixon-RAVE had lower image quality score compared with VIBE for the pre-FS (3.56 vs 3.67, P = 0.490), the pre-NFS (3.54 vs 3.88, P = 0.009), and the dyn-FS images (3.06 vs 3.67, P < 0.001), acceptable or better diagnostic quality was achieved (score ≥ 3). The FG score for Dixon-RAVE in comparison to VIBE was significantly higher for the pre-FS image (4.23 vs 3.85, P = 0.044), lower for the pre-NFS image (3.98 vs 4.25, P = 0.054), and higher for the dynamic fat-suppressed image (3.90 vs 3.85, P = 0.845).

Conclusions

Dixon-RAVE can serve as a one-stop-shop approach for comprehensive T1-weighted breast MRI with diagnostic image quality, high spatiotemporal resolution, reduced overall scan time, and improved fat suppression compared with conventional imaging.

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