To determine the incidence and risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus in a cohort of Thai HIV-infected patients on long-term combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).Design:
Prospective study conducted between July 1996 and 30 April 2015.Methods:
A total of 1748 patients (60% men) who did not have diabetes mellitus prior to ART were assessed twice a year. Incident diabetes mellitus was defined as either having two consecutive fasting glucose levels more than 126 mg/dl, or reporting antidiabetes mellitus medication/diabetes mellitus diagnosis after starting cART. Incidence rates were calculated per 1000 person-year follow-up. Multivariate Cox regression was used to determine risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus.Results:
During a median follow-up of 9 years (16 274 person-year of follow-up), 123 patients developed new-onset diabetes mellitus, resulting in an incidence rate of 7.6 (95% confidence interval 6.3–9) per 1000 person-year of follow-up. From the multivariate models, age more than 35 years, male sex, BMI at least 25 kg/m2, family history of diabetes, abnormal waist circumference, lipodystrophy and exposure to didanosine were significantly associated with incident diabetes mellitus. The diabetes mellitus group had higher mortality rate (8.1 vs. 4.1%, P = 0.04). A significantly higher proportion diabetes vs. nondiabetes patients developed cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications (8.9 vs. 3.6%, P = 0.008) or chronic kidney disease stage III (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2) (15.3 vs. 1.9%, P < 0.001) over total follow-up.Conclusion:
In addition to traditional risk factors, lipodystrophy and use of didanosine were strongly associated with development of incident diabetes. Given the higher rate of cardiovascular–cerebrovascular complications and chronic kidney disease among patients with diabetes mellitus, careful assessment and appropriate management of diabetes mellitus are essential.