Emergence of untreatable, multidrug-resistant HIV-1 in patients failing second-line therapy in Kenya

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Abstract

We performed a countrywide assessment of HIV drug resistance among 123 patients with virological failure on second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenya. The percentage of patients harbouring intermediate-to-high-level resistance was 27% for lopinavir-ritonavir, 24% for atazanavir-ritonavir and 7% for darunavir-ritonavir, and 25% had complete loss of activity to all available first and second-line drugs. Overall, one in four patients failing second-line ART have completely exhausted available antiretrovirals in Kenya, highlighting the need for increased access to third-line drugs.

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