This study was conducted to compare the caregiver burden with regard to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and to determine the factors affecting the caregiver burden of patients with AD and FTD. A comparative descriptive study design was used. The sample consisted of 90 patients with AD and 44 patients with FTD and their caregivers. Sociodemographic questionnaire, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Caregiver Burden Inventory (CBI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) were used. Descriptive statistics, t tests, χ2 test, and multinominal regression were used for analysis. No difference was found with subscales and the total score of the CBI, except time dependency scale. The total NPI and FAQ scores correlated significantly, and the MMSE score did not show a significant correlation with the AD and FTD caregiver burden. The presence and frequency of neuropsychological symptoms differ among patients with FTD and AD, and different symptoms affect the caregiver burdens in both groups.