Early Healing Evaluation of Commercially Pure Titanium and Ti-6Al-4V Presenting Similar Surface Texture: An In Vivo Study

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Abstract

Objective:

This study evaluated the osseointegration of commercially pure titanium (Ti) grade-2 (G2) and Ti-6Al-4V alloy (G5) implants with the same geometry and surface treatment.

Materials and Methods:

Thirty-six dental implants with a grit-blasted acid-etched surface were used (n = 18, each). Two implants, one per group, were installed in each subject, in the radius diaphysis (n = 18 beagle dogs), with interchanged fixture position (proximal-distal) between animals for a balanced number of devices per group and time in vivo (1, 3, and 6 weeks).

Results:

Similar topographical parameters between G2 and G5 were observed for average surface roughness, root mean square, developed surface ratio, maximum height of surface, and density of summits. Removal torque was significantly higher for G5 than for G2. No differences were observed for bone-to-implant contact and bone-area-fraction occupancy. Removal torque significantly increased with time for both groups. At 1 week, new bone formation in direct contact with the implant surface and osteogenic tissue migration was observed with an increase in woven bone formation at 3 weeks followed by the onset of lamellar bone formation at 6 weeks.

Conclusion:

Although both surfaces were biocompatible and osteoconductive, increased removal torque was observed for Ti-6Al-4V compared with commercially pure Ti implants.

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