Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment for Prevention of Delirium After Hip Fracture: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials
To assess the efficacy of comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) in prevention of delirium after hip fracture.DESIGN:
Systematic review and metaanalysis.SETTING:
Ward based models on geriatrics wards and visiting team based models on orthopaedics wards were included.PARTICIPANTS:
Four trials (three European, one U.S.; 973 participants) were identified. Two assessed ward-based, and two assessed team-based interventions.MEASUREMENTS:
MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases; Clinicaltrials.gov; and the Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Reference lists from full-text articles were reviewed. Incidence of delirium was the primary outcome. Length of stay, delirium severity, institutionalization, long-term cognition and mortality were predefined secondary outcomes. Duration of delirium was included as a post hoc outcome.RESULTS:
There was a significant reduction in delirium overall (relative risk (RR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69–0.94) in the intervention group. Post hoc subgroup analysis found this effect to be preserved in the team-based intervention group (RR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61–0.98) but not the ward-based group. No significant effect was observed on any secondary outcome.CONCLUSION:
There was a reduction in the incidence of delirium after hip fracture with CGA. This is in keeping with results of non-randomized controlled trials and trials in other populations. Team-based interventions appeared superior in contrast to the Ellis CGA paper, but it is likely that heterogeneity in interventions and population studied affected this.