Systematic reviews were conducted to identify risk factors associated with the onset and progression of 14 neurological conditions, prioritized as a component of the National Population Health Study of Neurological Conditions. These systematic reviews provided a basis for evaluating the weight of evidence of evidence for risk factors for the onset and progression of the 14 individual neurological conditions considered. A number of risk factors associated with an increased risk of onset for more than one condition, including exposure to pesticides (associated with an increased risk of AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brain tumours, and PD; smoking (AD, MS); and infection (MS, Tourette syndrome). Coffee and tea intake was associated with a decreased risk of onset of both dystonia and PD. Further understanding of the etiology of priority neurological conditions will be helpful in focusing future research initiatives and in the development of interventions to reduce the burden associated with neurological conditions in Canada and internationally.