There is growing evidence that pulmonary function impairment is related to cardiovascular events and death. Some studies have shown that the level of FVC is negatively related to arterial stiffness, but most studies were confined to men, and none of them examined the association of the presence of restrictive spirometry pattern with arterial stiffness. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association of restrictive spirometry pattern with arterial stiffness by sex.Methods
This study recruited 2,961 subjects after excluding those with (1) obstructive lung disease, as defined by history and pulmonary function test; (2) history of asthma, lung cancer, tuberculosis, coronary heart disease, stroke, or any pulmonary structural deformities; and (3) medications influencing BP, plasma glucose, lipid profile, and pulmonary function test. Restrictive spirometry pattern was diagnosed as an FVC < 80% of the predicted value and an FEV1/FVC ratio ≥ 70%. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as right brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥ 1,400 cm/s.Results
In both men and women, FVC was negatively associated with the baPWV level. Restrictive spirometry pattern was positively associated with increased arterial stiffness in both men and women (men: OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.33-3.50; women: OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.02-3.72) after adjustment for other clinical variables.Conclusions
Both restrictive spirometry pattern and reduced FVC were associated with a higher risk of arterial stiffness, not only in men but also in women. Clinically, assessment of arterial stiffness might be considered in individuals with restrictive spirometry pattern.