Safe and Effective Bedside Thoracentesis: A Review of the Evidence for Practicing Clinicians
Physicians often care for patients with pleural effusion, a condition that requires thoracentesis for evaluation and treatment. We aim to identify the most recent advances related to safe and effective performance of thoracentesis.METHODS:
We performed a narrative review with a systematic search of the literature. Two authors independently reviewed search results and selected studies based on relevance to thoracentesis; disagreements were resolved by consensus. Articles were categorized as those related to the pre-, intra- and postprocedural aspects of thoracentesis.RESULTS:
Sixty relevant studies were identified and included. Pre-procedural topics included methods for physician training and maintenance of skills, such as simulation with direct observation. Additionally, pre-procedural topics included the finding that moderate coagulopathies (international normalized ratio less than 3 or a platelet count greater than 25,000/μL) and mechanical ventilation did not increase risk of postprocedural complications. Intraprocedurally, ultrasound use was associated with lower risk of pneumothorax, while pleural manometry can identify a nonexpanding lung and may help reduce risk of re-expansion pulmonary edema. Postprocedurally, studies indicate that routine chest X-ray is unwarranted, because bedside ultrasound can identify pneumothorax.CONCLUSIONS:
While the performance of thoracentesis is not without risk, clinicians can incorporate recent advances into practice to mitigate patient harm and improve effectiveness.