Are dental and jaw changes more prevalent in a Brazilian population with sickle cell anemia?

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Abstract

Objective.

The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of dental and jaw changes in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) compared with a control group from a Brazilian population.

Study Design.

This was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Participants were divided into 2 groups: SCA and control (123 patients per group). Intraoral periapical radiographs were taken. Changes in bone pattern and dental changes were investigated by using the following radiographic parameters: (1) trabecular bone (step-ladder or spider web); (2) integrity of the lamina dura (loss of sharpness and continuity, partial or complete absence, and increased thickness); and (3) dental changes (pulp chamber, root surface, periapex, dental form, number, and position). Fisher's exact and χ2 tests were used to compare frequencies and the Mann-Whitney test was used to compare medians (P < .05).

Results.

Step-ladder (P < .001) and spider-web patterns (P < .001) in trabecular bone of the jaw were more common in individuals with SCA than in the control group. Loss of lamina dura was more frequent in those with SCA than in control individuals (P = .021). Dental changes were not different between groups (P > .05), even though the prevalence of hypotaurodontism was twice as high in the SCA group as in controls (P = .086).

Conclusions.

The prevalence of jaw changes is higher in individuals with SCA.

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